The heat pump takes heat/energy from any sources of low-grade heat (water, air, earth with a low temperature of ~5–8 ºC) and concentrates it, and then transfers it to heat buildings. Gasification of settlements in Russia is approximately 70%, and in the remaining 30% of the territory, the use of heating systems based on geothermal pumps may be almost the only alternative to firewood, since neither solar nor wind energy is able to fully heat buildings. For heating, soil-water pumps are more efficient: they take the heat from the soil and transfer it to the water circulating in the heating system of buildings.
To take heat from the soil or groundwater, the so-called primary heat exchange circuit is used: it is a looped pipe laid in the soil with a refrigerant circulating through it (most often a solution of whatsapp mobile number list alcohol in water). Passing through a layer of earth (or groundwater), the refrigerant heats up to 4–8 ºC, and actually “brings” heat to the heat pump. The heat pump converts 4–8 ºC into 45–70 ºC (that is, it concentrates) using freon and a compressor and transfers this heat to the water circulating in the pipes of the building's heating system. Such installations can be both small (designed for low-rise and cottage construction - and they are now the majority), and designed for heating multi-storey buildings.
The latter is still a rarity - there are several pilot projects on Experience in business and agriculture Geothermal installations were used in the USSR in the southern regions to supply heat to greenhouses and to heat ponds (aquaculture) and pools. Since 1966, heat supply systems based on geothermal installations have been successfully operating in the cities of Makhachkala, Kizlyar, Izberbash and other settlements of Dagestan. In 1969, with the help of geothermal installations, 15 hectares of greenhouses in Makhachkala were provided with heat. In 1985, the annual production of geothermal water in the Krasnodar Territory reached 8.5 million.